Ultimately, this restoration approach combines wise use of water resources with water quality and quantity to enable functional and biodiverse wetlands to be restored. Early results can be maximized through complementary research that determines the origin of the sediment and nutrients that have entered the system over time 31 so as to ensure that catchments losing most sediments and nutrients are rescued first triage approach.
Research can also drive a program to establish hydro-ecological requirements of wetlands by determining historical inundation regimes and the desiccation limits of key plant and animal taxa. Engineering works can then be commissioned to artificially water aquatic ecosystems to stimulate their regeneration and ensure the long-term persistence of viable plant and animal propagules. These measures can also be optimized by determining the appropriate representation of wetland types and prioritizing the watering of key sites that will act as permanent wetlands.
The communication of an adaptation pathway approach that implements diverse, timely measures is likely to attract community support, as players are invited to make a fair contribution to a basin wide program. These measures will not only enhance local wetland management, but will enable people to adapt to the effects of climate change locally and across the basin In less affluent regions, such as eastern Africa and northern India, restored wetlands can become a critical resource for local people.
For example, boat builders in coastal and island communities in Kenya and Tanzania are often forced to remove mangroves from key nursery habitats, thus harming the very wetlands that support the fisheries for which the boats are built In addition to supporting food and other resources for local people, restored mangroves effectively recycle nutrients, provide wildlife with habitat, and protect coasts from storms, erosion, and sea level rise In the s, the vast Chilika coastal lagoon in northeastern India suffered from excessive sediment accumulation due to natural inflows, agriculture, aquaculture, and human settlements in the watershed.
These processes narrowed the lagoon mouth and thus reduced its salinity; however, the lagoon has been restored by dredging the lead channel and opening a new mouth, which improved tidal and sediment fluxes, reduced flooding, and increased salinity and thus helped the recovery of seagrass, fish, crab, prawn, and dolphins The decision to open a new lagoon mouth was reached through coordination and consultation of local, national, and international stakeholders and this helped alleviate poverty, as fisheries productivity and tourism increased in the restored system The mangrove and lagoon examples show how comprehensive and transdisciplinary approaches to wetland restoration can yield positive ecological and socio-economic outcomes in emerging countries.
These insights can be useful to understand, if not to improve, wetland restoration in richer countries where deliberations may suffer more from power imbalances between stakeholders than where economic interests are smaller. The restoration of wetlands needs to benefit human societies and the biodiversity they depend on, for example by preventing soil erosion or purifying water, whilst conserving species. The assessment of restoration success is critical; however, we do not know whether the great majority of restoration projects is working or not 4 , for example due to shifting baselines in rapidly changing ecosystems and to the difficulty in setting appropriate reference conditions and realistic restoration goals.
Wetlands: Functioning, Biodiversity Conservation, and Restoration
We do know that effective restoration can be achieved if factors such as landscape, soil and topography, nutrients, disturbance, invasive species, and biodiversity are taken into account However, the beneficiaries of wetland restoration need to be identified, and restoration goals determined based on that information. At the base of any restoration activity, target goals e. Key abiotic and biotic variables to assess wetland ecological integrity need to be monitored appropriately, data and information transparently managed, and approaches and findings discussed broadly.
For example, cultivating crops that require less nutrients and water can improve water quality, while restoring mangroves can boost greenhouse gas sequestration 34 and support sectors such as subsistence fisheries and eco tourism 35 , at the same time protecting wildlife. Fundamental solutions to conflicts between wetland resource management and restoration include framing solutions to problems in a respectful way for all stakeholders involved, avoiding the politicization of key issues e.
Such brokers would be especially useful in large-scale restoration efforts e. Restoration approaches need to account for stakeholder values, assumptions, ideas, interests, and evidence from multidisciplinary researchers from different disciplines. These are best integrated in deliberations on restoration actions in a transdisciplinary way, from the commencement of a project to its completion.
To overcome conflicts and succeed, restoration projects, plans, and programs must take into account historical and existing ecosystem and landscape dynamics and evaluate potential ecological engineering and adaptive management solutions.
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Integrated water resource management IWRM programs that focus on water rights and pricing in river basins do not always work, especially if ad-hoc small-scale actions are easier and faster to implement On the other hand, inter-river basin management can be crucial for wetlands located downstream. Core funding for wetland science, monitoring, and restoration must be maintained or increased to fill any knowledge gaps, witness unforeseen changes, and feed evidence back into practice to ultimately safeguard the vital functions of wetlands.
This success has been possible due to long-term action and foresight on the part of multiple actors, including water managers, conservationists, and scientists. Increased and diverse funding sources are therefore critical for continued social-ecological research and restoration action. Long-term research funding cycles, such as those U. Restoration actions may work best if they are integrated into watershed sustainability plans and carried out with a triage approach to save the wetlands that can still be recovered based on priorities agreed upon by all stakeholders.
However, a change in mentality is required to shift from nationally-based policy instruments to an internationally agreed framework to set and enforce wetland restoration goals. Currently, the Ramsar Convention signatory Parties assess the effectiveness of their own policies, rules, and actions. The success of wetland restoration activities would be more impartially assessed by knowledge-based standardized and internationally agreed protocols.
The degradation of wetlands has to be first avoided, then mitigated, and, as a last resort, compensated for by constructing wetlands elsewhere Ongoing restoration efforts need to be better integrated into robust sustainability planning of land and water uses, a global challenge for social and environmental researchers, managers, policy makers, and conservationists. Moreover, where and when the economic value of key ecosystem services can be accurately estimated, cost-benefit analyses of any economic activity that supports or hinders wetland restoration need to incorporate such values.
Social Learning in Wetland development
On the other hand, the spiritual or existence value of wetlands cannot or should not be valued in economic terms. Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Your points will be added to your account once your order is shipped. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! This conference brought together about participants from 61 countries, who discussed a very broad range of science-, poli- and management-oriented issues related to wetland ecology and hydrology, wetland conservation and creation, the impact of global change and wetlands as a resource in terms of food, flood protection and water quality enhancement.
The participants were from different sectors of society, i. There were 38 s- posia with invited speakers centered around the nine conference themes. We have given the organizers of these symposia the opportunity to produce one chapter for these books with the integrated content of their symposium.
This has resulted in 25 chapters, of which 13 are included in Volume under the heading "Wetlands and Natural Resource Management"and 12 in Volume under the heading "Wetlands: Functi- ing, Biodiversity Conservation, and Restoration. All in all I recommend this book particularly because The price is adequate.
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Help Centre. Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join. They also work towards enhancing the ecological value within food production areas of the farm by planting native plants, and installing bird boxes and native bee cavities. The centrepiece of the Haliburton Biodiversity Project is the restoration of a degraded wetland and meadow that began in Starting with a monoculture of non-native reed canarygrass, they have been rebuilding a diverse wetland that now teams with aquatic insects, frogs, swallows, garter snakes, and the occasional salamander.
Restoration Resource Center Wetlands: Functioning, Biodiversity Conservation, and Restoration
This initiative provides a demonstration area to learn about the characteristic habitats, plants, and animals of the region. The wetland and wildflower meadow at Haliburton Farm need your help! Join us for a volunteering opportunity that will help you learn about the plants, animals and ecology of southern Vancouver Island. The Haliburton Biodiversity Project includes a diverse network of volunteers who work in a wetland and meadow at Haliburton Farm doing a variety of restoration activities like planting native plants, removing invasive species, and monitoring for wildlife.
We are passionate about enhancing and conserving biodiversity on farmlands. We will meet near the house at 10am Look for the yellow mailbox at the road that marks the lane from Haliburton Road and then meander to the wetland and riparian area. We will be working on mixed restoration tasks including removing invasive species, planting native plants, and monitoring wildlife!
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Pacific Chorus Frogs breed in the wetland and are found throughout the farm. Other species like garter snakes, swallows, and dozens of native bee species help with pest control and pollination. Photo: Elmarie Roberts. Garry Oak Meadow species blooming from seed in the Haliburton Farm meadow. A monoculture of non-native Reed Canary Grass transformed into a diverse array of native wildflowers, sedges, and grasses.